Georgius Gemistos (also Plethon or Pletho; in Greek: Γεώργιος Πλήθων Γεμιστός) (c. – ), a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, was one. ABSTRACT: In this paper I examine George Gemistos Plethon’s defense in his De Differentiis of Plato’s conception of God as superior to that of Aristotle’s. Born in Constantinople about , died in the Peloponnesus, Out of veneration for Plato he changed his name from Gemistos to Plethon. Although he .

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The Olympians gemidtos immortal life in the heavens, the Tartareans mortal life below, genistos leader Kronos ruling over mortality altogether. Turkey is situated at the crossroads of the Balkans, Caucasus, Middle East, and eastern…. It contains a wealth of biographical and bibliographical information and is an indispensible starting point for anyone wishing to do work on Plethon.

Land was to be publicly owned, and a third of all produce given to the state fund; incentives would be given for cultivating virgin land.

Contact our editors with your feedback. Gottlieb Christoph Harlessxii. In Constantinople, he had been a senator, and he continued to fulfil various public functions, such as being a judge, and was regularly consulted by rulers of Morea. Heterodoxy in Defence of Orthodoxy. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Woodhouse provides a brief summary of the twelve points in his Plethon I would also like to thank Eva Dadlez and James Mock for reading an earlier draft of this paper and catching me in an embarassing number lpethon now rectified solecisms.

Instead, at the invitation of some Florentine humanists he set up a temporary school to lecture gemidtos the difference between Plato and Aristotle. Aristotle, on the other hand, never calls God the creator of anything whatever, but only the motive force of the universe.


Plethon studied in Constantinople and at the Ottoman Muslim court in nearby Adrianople. This summary, titled Summary of the Doctrines of Zoroaster and Platoaffirms the existence of a pantheon of gods, with Zeus as supreme sovereign, containing within himself all being in an plrthon state; his eldest child, pkethon, is Poseidonwho created the heavens and rules all below, ordaining order gemkstos the universe.

He re-introduced Plato ‘s ideas to Western Europe during the — Council of Florencea failed attempt to reconcile the East-West schism. Plethon may also have been the source for Ficino’s Orphic system of natural magic. He cites as his evidence for this Metaphysics a This apparently is a reference to Avicennae Metaphysices CompendiumLatin trans.

Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. As an ad-hoc measure he also supported the reconciliation of the two churches in order to secure Western Europe support against the Ottomans. The study of Strabo greatly affected the Renaissance concept of the configuration gemishos the Earth; Christopher Columbus cited Strabo among his principal authorities.

George Gemistos Plethon: the last of the Hellenes

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we’ll add it to the article. Trade would be regulated and the use of coinage limited, barter instead being encouraged; locally available products would be supported over imports. Plethon continues his complaint by noting ” Plethon’s claim is that, as we saw above, ” The Olympians are the creators and rulers of the immortals in the heavens, but the Tartareans rule the mortals here; so that Kronos of the Tartareans, himself the leader of the Titans, rules over the mortal form altogether.


Though Pleth maintained that Plato believed that God was creator of the universe, he did not say that Plato believed that God created the universe ex nihilo from nothing.

A closer examination of Plethon’s position in De Differentiis when compared to his position in his Summary reveals that those two positions are, in fact, consistent with one another and not with any Christian conception whatever. Nearly all of his writing is marked by passionate devotion to Greece and a desire to restore its ancient glory.

Gemistos Plethon – New World Encyclopedia

Marsilio Ficinothe Florentine humanist and the first director of the Accademia Platonica, paid Plethon the ultimate honour, calling him ‘the second Plato’, while Cardinal Bessarion speculated as to whether Plato’s soul occupied his body. As you would expect from a summary, there are no arguments. This Summary was a summary of the Book of Laws. Gemistos’s fame had preceded him, and he was invited by some Florentine humanists to give a series of lectures on the differences between Plato and Aristotle.

His attack on Aristotelianism was to some extent effective, although opposed to him were men of equal ability and power, such as GennadiosPatriarch of Constantinople. The 15th century study of Platonism In Platonism: Robert Appleton Company, Manuel and Theodore did not act on any of these reforms. Lagarde’s text is based, as stated, on Plethon’s autograph, cod.

Ficino recorded the following about the founding of the Academy: